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Who Were Adam & Eve?

Having already looked deeply into the biblical texts, and discovered many hidden meanings and messages that radically altered the standard interpretation of history and theology, I thought it was about time I looked at the story of Adam and Eve. My previous books, Jesus, Last of the Pharaohs and Solomon, Falcon of Sheba, have demonstrated that the Israelite leaders were actually pharaohs and priests of Egypt, and that much of Israelite theology was derived from the theology of the ‘heretic pharaoh,’ Akhenaton.

But I had always considered that the Adam and Eve story from the beginning of Genesis would have been totally impossible to reinterpret, as the narrative and genealogies from this early part of the Bible are too fragmented and confusing to provide a verifiable history. However, during my many investigations into the history of the Israelites, I had begun to see that there were many similarities between the Hebrew and Egyptian languages. As I progressed in my research I built up a dictionary of some 250 words that were identical in both pronunciation and meaning, and it was to be this new insight into the Bible that solved the Genesis mystery. Surprising, as it may seem, these identical words littered the Book of Genesis and demonstrated to me that the early sections of the Bible had originally been written in Egyptian. Taking the translations direct from the Egyptian, instead of through the Hebrew, gave a slightly different slant on the narrative, and a clearer picture of the true meaning of Adam and Eve eventually emerged.

But even from within the Hebrew-English translation there was novel evidence to be found. Take the location of the Garden of Eden, for instance—exactly where was this fabled arboretum? Historians and theologians confidently place the Garden between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern Iraq, as the Bible seems to specifically mention these two rivers. Well, actually it does not mention these rivers at all, for in the Hebrew original the names of these rivers simply mean ‘rapid’ and ‘fruitful’ respectively. So what does the Bible actually say about these rivers? Well, the relevant text is: And a river went out of Eden to water the garden and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. [Gen 2:10]

The meaning of this sentence could not be clearer if it tried. What we are looking for is a great river that flows through a garden, or oasis, and then divides into four heads, or branches. There is only one river in the Middle East that does exactly this, and that is the Nile. The Nile flows through the long, sinuous garden of the irrigated lands of Egypt, and then it divides into the two branches of the Nile Delta. However, in ancient times there were as many as six branches in the Delta, and by the New Kingdom era there are reputed to have been four branches. Clearly, the Book of Genesis is saying that the Garden of Eden was originally located in Egypt.

So what did the term ‘Eden’ infer? It is my contention that Eden can also be pronounced as Aden, and that this name was derived from the god Aton, which can also be spelled as Adon. It is from the god Aton (Adon) that the Hebrew god Adhon was derived, and I believe that it is also from the Aton (Adon) that the Biblical Garden of Eden (Aden) was derived. But if this is so, then we are quite possibly linking the Garden of Eden with the city of Amarna, the city of the ‘heretic pharaoh’ Akhenaton. It was Akhenaton who promoted the Aton into the state god of Egypt, it was Akhenaton who was probably pushed out of Egypt on an Exodus, and it is Akhenaton who I have already identified as being the brother of the biblical Moses. In my opinion, Akhenaton and his brother, TuthMoses, were one and the same as Aaron and his brother Moses.

But in the book Jesus, Last of the Pharaohs I have already identified Akhenaton with the Exodus event from Egypt. How, in that case, can Akhenaton also be present at the beginning of the Genesis story in the Garden of Eden? As it happens, the Egyptian translation of the Adam and Eve story places a different emphasis upon this creation epic. Instead of being a tale of the creation of the world, it seems that Genesis was actually a story about the dawn of a new day. Indeed, this is exactly what the historian Josephus indicates—that Moses said it was just another day.

When looked at in this light, it suddenly becomes clear that the ‘creation epic’ is actually the same as Akhenaton’s Hymn to the Aten—his glorious celebration of the dawn of a new day. It is likely that the Hymn to the Aten was sung to greet the dawn (the beginning) of each new day, and this has been confused in a later era with (the beginning) of all creation. Thus when god was supposed to be creating birds and allowing them to fly, the birds were actually waking from their sleep and greeting the Sun-god Aten, as the Hymn to the Aten relates. Indeed, the birds were doing this in the Garden of Eden (Aten) at Amarna.

So if the Garden of Eden was located at Amarna, then what of Adam and Eve? The first thing to note is that Adam and Eve were primarily famed for being innocently naked in their idyllic garden, but when they were finally banished from this garden, they became embarrassed by their nakedness and were forced to cover up. This, I believe, is a direct allusion to the fate of the Amarna couple. Yes, Akhenaton and Nefertiti initially floated through their beautiful palaces at Amarna in a state of near nakedness, with scene after scene portraying the royal couple in see-through diaphanous robes or even completely naked.

However, when Amarna was destroyed and the royal couple were forced to flee, (there is no evidence for their deaths at Amarna), they would have been forced out into the big wide world of sailors, artisans and farmers. Their usual nakedness, which seemed so respectable and befitting in the court of Amarna, would have looked positively indecent in a rural village or town. There was nothing else to do except to cover up!

Adam’s name translates as the Red Man, and I have taken this to be a reference to the Red Crown of Lower Egypt, which was the traditional power base of the Hyksos pharaohs, who I have closely identified with the Israelites. Thus the term Adam simply confirmed that Akhenaton’s dynasty was primarily from the Delta region, which we already know. So it is possible, but not conclusive, that Adam was Akhenaton himself.

But what of Eve? This section of the research was interesting, because there were many elements to Eve’s attributes that seemed to point towards Eve being Nefertiti, which would make a great deal of sense. However, I then noticed an epigraphic connection. Eve’s Hebrew name was Khavah, meaning ‘life.’ However, an alternative rendition of this was Khiya, which also means ‘life.’ As it happens, the second wife of Akhenaton, a lady who was often called his favourite wife, was Kiya. This, together with other evidence, convinced me that Adam and Eve were actually Akhenaton and Kiya. Thus it is entirely possible that Akhenaton eloped with his favorite, Kiya, and left Nefertiti to become pharaoh under the name of Smenkhkare.

This radically new identification might appear to lend the Book of Genesis a rather tortuous chronology, but in actual fact things are not quite as bad as they may seem. The opening verses of Genesis are simply a slightly garbled version of the Hymn to the Aten, but enmeshed within this there are also a few fleeting details of the life of Akhenaton and Kiya. They are included at this juncture for two reasons. Firstly, because the theology of the Israelites was based upon Akhenaton’s (Adam’s or Aaron’s) Atonist faith. Secondly, because like Adam and Eve, Akhenaton and Kiya were the ‘First Couple.’ This term did not infer a chronology; rather it inferred a position within society, just as the American president’s wife is called the First Lady.

Following the opening few verses about Akhenaton and Amarna, the Book of Genesis then regresses to tell the story of the early Hyksos pharaohs, who were named as Abra-ham (Pharaoh Mam-Aybre) and Jacob (Pharaoh Jacoba). It is only when we reach the account of Exodus, which is a completely separate document penned by a different author, that we again see the mention of Akhenaton. Here, the Akhenaton is called Aaron, and his brother TuthMoses is called Moses. This second mention, like the Garden of Eden story, confirms that Akhenaton and TuthMoses were involved in an exodus out of their idyl at Amarna, and were forced to find an alternative ‘Promised Land’. The Bible confidently asserts that this new land was Jerusalem in Israel, but I am not so sure that this is correct. The historian Manetho suggests instead that their initial destination was Avaris (Pi Ramesse) in the Nile Delta. They then moved to Jerusalem, but what is actually meant by this term?

The original name for Jerusalem was Jebus, and I rather think that this referred instead to Tchebet, which is a name for Tanis in the Nile Delta. This would mean that the biblical Zion (Jerusalem) was actually the biblical Zoan (or Tanis). Unfortunately for the modern Zionists of Israel, they may well be seeking to establish a Judaic homeland in the wrong location and the wrong country. It may also be true that the Knights Templar were also looking in the wrong location, and that the secrets they sought beneath the Temple of Solomon (Hebrew: HeyKar Yahweh), may still reside under the Temple at Tanis (Egyptian: HetKar Ptah).

© 2004. R. Ellis has asserted his rights, in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 to be identified as the author of this work. Taken from Eden in Egypt (UK ISBN 09531913-9-7, USA ISBN 1-931882-40-1) by Ralph Ellis.

Ancient Mysteries

March/April 2005 – #50