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Science Fact & Fiction

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Science Was Wrong

The thesis advanced in “Science Was Wrong” (AR, #124) is all too true. Although there are honorable, competent, and open-minded scientists out there, overall, science has been corrupted to the point where, arguably, it is no longer science. A big part of the problem is with the universities, most of which seem to have degenerated into indoctrination centers, where future scientists are taught to be atheists and philosophical materialists and to believe in such government-approved dogmas as man-caused global warming. Scientists are supposed to be open-minded seekers of truth, accepting nothing on faith, and questioning every hypothesis; but many of them accept materialism as axiomatic and never think to question the dogma. This means that they are not really scientists at all. This is most obvious with the semi-professional “skeptics,” who spend an inordinate amount of time and energy trying to debunk UFO reports, alleged paranormal experiences, or alternative theories of physics or of human origins. They claim that “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence,” but who has the right to define a particular claim as “extraordinary” or decide what level of evidence is required to prove it? These people are self-appointed gatekeepers.

Those of us who research and write about such topics as UFOs, “free” energy, and lost civilizations can fall into the same mind trap. For example, some writers who appear regularly on television and should know better are prone to making sweeping statements about Pleiadean beam ships or Sirian space brothers, offering no proof whatever for their assertions. This may win them fame and sell books, but it does not bring us closer to truth. We owe it to ourselves to be the true skeptics, skeptical of both conventional science and unconventional ideas, open-minded enough to ask forbidden questions and honest enough to realize that we may not have the answers to those questions.

Pat Alexander, Sacramento, CA



Out of Australia, or Out of Africa?

In the article, “The Australian Americans,” by Steven and Evan Strong (AR, #123), [the authors] ask the question, “Is the standard Out-of-Africa narrative about to change?” The answer is, ‘it shall not,’ for that narrative is supported by extensive evidence, and has withstood the majority of scientific scrutiny. [My 2011 book] The First Americans Were Africans: REVISITED refutes many of the points raised in the Strong’s article.

First, diminutive Hobbits on Flores Island did not begin in Siberia. They are diminutive Pygmies who originated, and still live in Africa today and look identical to the diminutive Egyptian god, Bes.

Second, there is a growing body of evidence that the Nubians (Kushites), and later Egyptians (Kemites), were global seafarers in antiquity. They also still speak the oldest known language in the world consisting of “clicking sounds” as seen in the 1980 movie, The Gods Must be Crazy.

The evidence is born out of such diverse discoveries as the: Egyptian mummies, statues and relics found in the Grand Canyon caves, the pyramids in China, and even the Australian Kemitic glyphs found carved in stone. “The glyphs were of such accuracy that they reflect a number of ancient hieroglyphics and even ‘grammatical’ variations that were not even documented in Egyptian hieroglyphic texts until 2012.”

[Jacqui] Hayes [cited by the Strongs] claims that the “Australian original presence in America,” began before the second migration of people “with distinctive Mongolian features.” They also state that, “startling new finds suggest that prehistoric Australians reached South America more than 11,000 years ago.”

The first point is true, in that Black people migrated to the ‘The New World’ before the arrival of people with Mongolian features. However, these people were Africans with Mongolian features.

Biological evidence shows Subsaharan Khoisan Africans are known by their Haplogroup N-DNA. Modern humans crossed North Africa into Spain and then throughout Eurasia, where scientists found ancient Sub-Saharan mtDNA and related evidence. The Twa, Anu, and Khoisan also crossed into India, Southeast Asia, and then Australia.

What else does the DNA have to say? Native Americans and Africans are directly related by their R1 Y-chromosome linage because of their African forefathers. But Mongolians do not have the R-M173 nor mtDNA haplogroup X markers.

The Australians did not leave Africa to settle much of Eurasia until approximately 65,000 years ago, as supported by ancient sites in India that correspond to sites in Southern Africa. A short-statured, African aboriginal population existed in the far North Queensland rainforest zone of Australia’s northeast coast; and Tasmania has long been known in Australian anthropology.

It is common knowledge that the first wave of Africans into Australia were the frizzy-haired pygmoid Negritos or Barrineans, who still survive in N.E. Queensland, Australia and the Andaman Islands today. They not only signed their genetic marker in Asia, and Australia, but it is seen in all of the Americas where they left evidence of: pyramids, Egyptian temple sites, etc.

Yes, Hayes’ new date for the first people in the Americas “with distinctive Mongoloid features,” is “exceeding the maximum Clovis (Mongoloid) entry date.” However, [I have] destroyed the “Clovis Theory”—which was correctly tagged a “theory,”—it was not supported with scientific evidence as examined in my book, The First Americans Were Africans: REVISITED.

Africans, whose DNA suggests that they were the first modern humans, were also the first to build ships to traverse the most ancient highway—the Nile—in the oldest maritime crafts—reed boats that predate wooden boats by millennia. Thor Heyerdahl was the first to show these ships were also seaworthy. Heyerdahl copied the ship design from an Egyptian temple and hired Africans near Lake Chad, who have been building reed boats for thousands of years. The ship that they built, successfully crossed the Atlantic…

The “Out of Australia” concept is an interesting but weak theory with little chance of replacing the well-reasoned, evidence-based fact of the African origin of the human race and civilization.

David Imhotep, Author: The First Americans Were Africans: REVISITED, Baltimore, MD



Prehistoric Reality in Egypt’s Chronicles

In “Khufu Papyri Unveiled” (AR #121) Robert Schoch considered the oldest part of the Manetho’s history of Egypt as an argument for incredible antiquity of proto-Egyptian civilization. I would like to note that there are intriguing parallels between the oldest part of Egyptian kingship lists and prehistoric realities.

For example, the pre-Hawass Histoire des Hommes (vol. 10, Paris : 1781, p. 225) contains the interesting table for “mythical chronology” of Ancient Egypt. In this table, the Egyptian history is begun about 38,633 BC (in the “Original system of the great period” based on the precession) by Hephaestus or Vulcan, which are the Greek/Roman versions of the native creator god Ptah. The next kingdom of the Sun (Helios, Ra) came in 38,464 BC for 30,000 years in the same precession system. This was followed by the Saturn’s kingdom in 8464 BC. Note that Saturn is associated with agriculture.

It is remarkable that this Saturnian-agricultural date (8464 BC) corresponds to the beginning of the Neolithic Revolution (10,000 to 8000 BC) in the Fertile Crescent. The migration from the Crescent is a known factor of agriculture spreading in predynastic Egypt as well as in Northern Africa. The solar kingdom (38,464 to 8464 BC) corresponds to the super-arid Sahara desert during the last glacial period (108,000 to 9700 BC). That time can be characterized as a solar terror indeed.

Hence, the “mythical” history shows “a grain of truth” confirming the long timescale of the Egyptian chronicles.

Oleksiy Arkhypov, Ph.D., Graz, Austria



Martian Pressure

This is in response to William B. Stoecker’s article, “Why Is the Martian Sky Blue?” (AR #118). In his article he had doubts as to whether there’s enough air to open a parachute above the Martian surface. To quote him: “Using simple arithmetic and high school physics, it can be shown that chutes used on Mars would not work as advertised.” I would have to disagree with his premise and will prove it below.

Using the air density at the Martian surface, and I realize the parachutes deploy 4 miles above the surface, you can use the equation below to see the pressure exerted by the wind or dynamic pressure in Pascals: q = .5pv², where q = the dynamic pressure, p = air density, and v = the velocity.

According to NASA the velocity that the parachute deploys is 450 meters/sec (1,006 mph). The air density on Mars is .02Kg/m³. This would equal a dynamic pressure of 2,025 Pascals.

Not to get too heavily into the math, this would be the equivalent of a speed on Earth of 57 m/s or 127 mph. This is more than enough to open a parachute. I realize the density is less at four miles above the surface, but I still think it would be more than enough to open a parachute.

The parachute is only used to slow down the landing craft. The actually landing is done using rockets.

I believe it’s a well-established fact that the atmospheric density on Mars is a little less than 1% of Earth’s atmosphere. If the density of air on Mars were anywhere close to Earth’s, the large parachute used would be ripped to shreds.

Mark Perlick, Facebook, Camarillo, CA



Vedic Easter Eggs

[Re: “Lost River of the Vedas,” by Cynthia Logan, AR #124]

The March equinox and the Vedic truth underlying Easter and the Easter Egg Hunt: The Rishis called our sacred and collectively Lost Egg by many names. Primarily they called it Agni—the hidden One, the triple One, the divine flame, the triple fire, the son of force, the eternal spring of life, leader of our evolutionary march (journey), the preserver, our deliverer, world savior, and hero of all heroes. In the Western tradition, Agni is known as Aries (or Mars). He is often depicted as a hunter. The true antiquity of this yogic mythology depicting our evolutionary march towards reunion with the light of our soul and, hence, with all creation (past, present and future) is unknown. Religious traditions and rituals that separate the ‘hidden’ or ‘golden egg’ from the Spring Equinox serve to keep the ‘egg’ hidden—distorting or hiding the truth of the Vedic Solar Gnosis and unity consciousness it contains and births in time.

Lori Tompkins,, San Rafael, CA



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Sept/Oct 2017 – #125

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Strange Flashes on Earth Detected from Space

One million miles from Earth, a NASA camera is capturing unexpected flashes of light reflecting off our planet. The homeward-facing instrument on NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory, or DSCOVR, launched in 2015, caught hundreds of these flashes over the span of a year. As keen observers from outside NASA wrote in, questioning the source of these lights, scientists deciphered the tiny cause to the big reflections: high-altitude, horizontally oriented ice crystals.

NASA’s Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument aboard DSCOVR is taking almost-hourly images of the sunlit planet from its spot between Earth and the sun. Alexander Marshak, DSCOVR deputy project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, first noticed light flashes occasionally appearing over oceans as he looked through that day’s EPIC images.

Investigating the flashes, Marshak and his colleagues found that similar reflections from our pale blue dot caught the attention of astronomer Carl Sagan in 1993. Sagan was looking at images taken by the Galileo spacecraft, which launched in 1989 to study Jupiter and its moons. During one if its gravitational-assist swings around Earth, Galileo turned its instruments on this planet and collected data. Sagan and his colleagues used that to test a key question: Whether spacecraft could detect signatures of life from afar.

Flashes of light reflected off oceans—like those referenced by Sagan—could have a simple explanation, Marshak said: Sunlight hits a smooth part of an ocean or lake and reflects directly back to the sensor, like taking a flash-picture in a mirror.

But when the scientists took another took at the Galileo images, they saw something Sagan and his colleagues apparently missed—bright flashes of light over land, as well. And those flashes also appeared in the EPIC images. As the contact listed on the website that posts all EPIC images, Marshak started getting e-mails from people curious about what the flashes were.

“We found quite a few very bright flashes over land, as well,” he said. “When I first saw it, I thought maybe there was some water there, or a lake the sun reflects off of. But the glint is pretty big, so it wasn’t that.”

Instead, he and his colleagues Tamas Varnai of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, and Alexander Kostinski of Michigan Technological University, thought of water elsewhere in the Earth system: ice particles high in the atmosphere. The scientists conducted a series of experiments, detailed in a new paper published in Geophysical Research Letters, to confirm the cause of the distant flashes.

First, the researchers cataloged all of the prospective sunlight glints over land in images from the EPIC camera. The flashes show up in three, distinct colors, because the camera takes the red, green, and blue images several minutes apart. In all, the scientists found 866 bursts between DSCOVR’s launch in June 2015 and August 2016.

The scientists reasoned that if these 866 flashes were caused by reflected sunlight, they would be limited to certain spots on the globe—spots where the angle between the sun and Earth is the same as the angle between the spacecraft and Earth, allowing for the spacecraft to pick up the reflected light. When they plotted the locations of the glints with where those angles would match, given Earth’s tilt and the spacecraft’s location, the two matched.

This helped confirm that it wasn’t something like lightning causing the flashes, Marshak said: “Lightning doesn’t care about the sun and EPIC’s location.” The researchers also plotted angles to determine that the light was reflecting off of ice particles floating in the air nearly horizontally.

Another feature of the EPIC data helped confirm that the flashes were from a high altitude, not simply water on the ground. Two channels on the instrument are designed to measure the height of clouds, and when the scientists went to the data they found high cirrus clouds, 3 to 5 miles (5 to 8 kilometers) where the glints were located.

By Kate Ramsayer

For more information about DSCOVR, visit:

CAPTION: A million miles from Earth, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory spots flash (NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Katy Mersmann)



Humans Rely More on ‘Inferred’ Visual Objects than ‘Real’ Ones

Humans treat ‘inferred’ visual objects generated by the brain as more reliable than external images from the real world, according to new research published in eLife.

The study, from the University of Osnabrück, Germany, reveals that when choosing between two identical visual objects—one generated internally based on information from the blind spot and an external one—we are surprisingly likely to show a bias towards the internal information.

To make sense of the world, humans and animals need to combine information from multiple sources. This is usually done according to how reliable each piece of information is. For example, to know when to cross the street, we usually rely more on what we see than what we hear—but this can change on a foggy day.

“In such situations with the blind spot, the brain ‘fills in’ the missing information from its surroundings, resulting in no apparent difference in what we see,” says senior author Professor Peter König, from the University of Osnabrück’s Institute of Cognitive Science. “While this fill-in is normally accurate enough, it is mostly unreliable because no actual information from the real world ever reaches the brain. We wanted to find out if we typically handle this filled-in information differently to real, direct sensory information, or whether we treat it as equal.”

To do this, König and his team asked study participants to choose between two striped visual images, both of which were displayed to them using shutter glasses. Each image was displayed either partially inside or completely outside the visual blind spot. Both were perceived as identical and ‘continuous’ due to the filling-in effect; and participants were asked to select the image they thought represented the real, continuous stimulus.

“We thought people would either make their choice without preference, or with a preference towards the real stimulus, but exactly the opposite happened—there was in fact a strong bias towards the filled-in stimulus inside the blind spot,” says first author Benedikt Ehinger, researcher at the University of Osnabrück. “Additionally, in an explorative analysis of how long the participants took to make their choice, we saw that they were slightly quicker to choose this stimulus than the one outside the blind spot.”

So, why are subjects so keen on the blind-spot information when it is essentially the least reliable? The team’s interpretation is that subjects compare the internal representation (or ‘template’) of a continuous stimulus against the incoming sensory input, resulting in an error signal that represents the mismatch. In the absence of real information, no deviation and therefore no error or a smaller signal occurs, ultimately leading to a higher credibility at the decision-making stage. This indicates that perceptual decision-making can rely more on inferred rather than real information, even when there is some knowledge about the reduced reliability of the inferred image available in the brain.

“In other words, the implicit knowledge that a filled-in stimulus is less reliable than an external one does not seem to be taken into account for perceptual decision-making,” Ehinger explains.

The team says that understanding how we integrate information from different sources with different reliabilities can inform us about the exact mechanisms used by the brain to make decisions based on our perceptions.

CAPTION: Participants were asked to choose between two striped visual images, one ‘real’ and one inset in the blind spot, displayed using shutter glasses. (Photo: Ricardo Gameiro)



Genome Data from Ancient Egyptian Mummies

An international team of scientists, led by researchers from the University of Tuebingen and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, successfully recovered and analyzed ancient DNA from Egyptian mummies dating from approximately 1400 BCE to 400 CE, including the first genome-wide nuclear data from three individuals, establishing ancient Egyptian mummies as a reliable source for genetic material to study the ancient past. The study, published in March in Nature Communications, found that modern Egyptians share more ancestry with Sub-Saharan Africans than ancient Egyptians did, whereas ancient Egyptians were found to be most closely related to ancient people from the Near East.

Egypt is a promising location for the study of ancient populations. It has a rich and well-documented history, and its geographic location and many interactions with populations from surrounding areas, in Africa, Asia and Europe, make it a dynamic region. Recent advances in the study of ancient DNA present an intriguing opportunity to test existing understandings of Egyptian history using ancient genetic data.

However, genetic studies of ancient Egyptian mummies are rare due to methodological and contamination issues. Although some of the first extractions of ancient DNA were from mummified remains, scientists have raised doubts as to whether genetic data, especially nuclear genome data, from mummies would be reliable, even if it could be recovered. “The potential preservation of DNA has to be regarded with skepticism,” confirms Johannes Krause, Director at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena and senior author of the study. “The hot Egyptian climate, the high humidity levels in many tombs and some of the chemicals used in mummification techniques, contribute to DNA degradation and are thought to make the long-term survival of DNA in Egyptian mummies unlikely.” The ability of the authors of this study to extract nuclear DNA from such mummies and to show its reliability using robust authentication methods is a breakthrough that opens the door to further direct study of mummified remains.

For this study, an international team of researchers from the University of Tuebingen, the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, the University of Cambridge, the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Berlin Society of Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory, looked at genetic differentiation and population continuity over a 1,300-year timespan, and compared these results to modern populations. The team sampled 151 mummified individuals from the archaeological site of Abusir el-Meleq, along the Nile River in Middle Egypt, from two anthropological collections hosted and curated at the University of Tuebingen and the Felix von Luschan Skull Collection at the Museum of Prehistory of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Stiftung Preussicher Kulturbesitz.

The study found that ancient Egyptians were most closely related to ancient populations in the Levant, and they were also closely related to Neolithic populations from the Anatolian Peninsula and Europe.

This study counters prior skepticism about the possibility of recovering reliable ancient DNA from mummies.

CAPTION: Sarcophagus of Tadja, Abusir el-Meleq. (Photo bpk/Aegyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, SMB/Sandra Steiss)


Dissenting Opinion

Sept/Oct 2017 – #125

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Cuba's 'Sunken City' Revisited

In the year 2000, Paulina Zelitsky and her husband Paul Weinzweig, who owned and operated a company in Canada called Advanced Digital Communications (ADC), were doing research for the Cuban government in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico off the western tip of Cuba (the Guanahacabibes Peninsula). They were using sonar to scan the ocean bottom for old Spanish shipwrecks, which might be the source of treasure, but they found something even more interesting—the apparent remains of a submerged city. BBC News reported on December 7, 2001: “The explorers first spotted the underwater city last year, when scanning equipment started to produce images of symmetrically organized stone structures reminiscent of an urban development” (

In July 2001, the researchers returned to the site with geologist Manuel Iturralde, of the Natural History Museum of Cuba. This time thy used a remote- controlled submersible vehicle equipped with a camera to film the structures. The BBC News report said, “The images the robot brought back confirmed the presence of huge, smooth blocks with the appearance of cut granite. Some of the blocks were built in pyramid shapes, others were circular, researchers said. They believe these formations could have been built more than 6,000 years ago, a date which precedes the great pyramids of Egypt by 1,500 years. ‘It’s a really wonderful structure which really looks like it could have been a large urban center,’ ADC explorer Paulina Zelitsky told the Reuters news agency.” But she admitted that further research was needed for confirmation. According to a report published by National Geographic News (May 28, 2002) Iturralde said, “These are extremely peculiar structures, and they have captured our imagination. But if I had to explain this geologically, I would have a hard time.” In other words, they were most probably not a natural geological formation. The structures were found at a depth of 650 meters (2,132.5 feet).

Zelitsky proposed that the ruins were perhaps those of a town that existed on a land bridge that used to exist between Cuba and the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico during the last Ice Age. The basic idea is that during the Ice Age huge amounts of water from the earth’s oceans were stored in the ice sheets that covered vast parts of North America and Eurasia. This caused the sea levels to fall, thus exposing land areas that are now underwater, such as the land bridge between Cuba and the Yucatan. Manuel Iturralde, the Cuban geologist, had some thoughts about that. National Geographic News said: “Iturralde noted that conclusive proof of man-made structures on the site could reinforce some oral traditions of the Maya and native Yucatecos. These people still retell ancient stories of an island inhabited by their ancestors that vanished beneath the waves.”

In 2012, Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews, who runs the skeptic website Bad Archaeology, said in his report on this case that the depth of the alleged Cuban sunken remains (over 2,000 feet) is a big problem. He pointed out that during the Ice Age the sea levels only dropped a maximum of about 100 meters (328 feet).

In a report published on on February 26, 2016 (“The Exceptional Underwater City of Cuba: A New Theory on its Origins – Part I”), researcher Brad Yoon made a proposal that did not depend only on rising and falling sea levels. Perhaps the land on which the city had originally been built had itself sunk 650 meters because of huge tectonic shifts. However, Yoon stated: “The hypothesis that the city was originally built at a higher altitude and subsequently sunk to its present depth through tectonic activity has not stood up to the scrutiny of the experts. Grenville Draper of Florida International University considers it highly unlikely that such an event could have occurred: ‘Nothing of this magnitude has been reported.’”

Yoon made yet another proposal: “Could the Caribbean Sea have been a dry basin, and could it have been so during the existence of anatomically modern man? Having performed an exhaustive search on the topic, I couldn’t find a single source within the alternative literature let alone a peer-reviewed scientific paper that put forth such a hypothesis. However implausible this hypothesis may be, if true, it would provide a simple and elegant solution to the problem discussed, namely that of how a city could have been built close to 700 meters (2,300 feet) below sea level today, or 580 meters (1900 feet) below sea level even during the maximum drawdown of the world’s oceans. If the Caribbean Sea simply did not exist for an extended period of time in the human past, a reasonably advanced civilization inhabiting the area could have built cities on dry land thousands of feet below sea level, even over 10,000 feet below sea level.”

Yoon’s idea is interesting, but he was limited in his thinking by his idea that the Caribbean, including the Gulf of Mexico, had to have been a dry basin “during the existence of anatomically modern man.” Most scientists today believe that anatomically modern humans appeared less than 200,000 years ago. So there is no evidence that the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico was a dry basin within that period of time.

But I do not accept that humans like us appeared only less than 200,000 years ago. As I have documented in my book Forbidden Archeology, there is evidence showing that humans like us existed as far back as hundreds of millions of years ago. And we can find in the peer reviewed scientific literature evidence that the Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean area was a dry basin during the early part of the Jurassic period (145–201 million years ago), before being filled with seawater in the Middle Jurassic. This evidence was summarized by oceanographer R. M. Darnell in 2015 in his book The American Sea: A Natural History of the Gulf of Mexico, published by the Texas A & M University Press. Darnell (p. 28) said that about 176 million years ago, water from the Pacific began to flow into the dry basin through a channel that opened through central Mexico. The basin was intermittently filled by shallow water. Toward the end of the Jurassic, Darnell (p. 30) said water began to flow into the basin from the Atlantic. This flow filled the basin permanently and deeply, creating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. So it is possible that the structures could have been built on the floor of the dry basin by humans during the early Jurassic, over 174 million years ago.

According to the Puranas, the historical writings of ancient India, humans existed at that time. The concept of time in the Puranas is cyclical. The basic unit of Puranic time is the kalpa, or day of Brahma. It lasts for 4.32 billion years. One kalpa follows another. The kalpa is divided into 14 sub-cycles called manvantaras, each lasting a little over 300 million years. According to the Puranic calendar, we are now in the midst of the 7th manvantaras of the current day of Brahma. The 7th manvantaras began about 120 million years ago. The time when the basin of the Gulf of Mexico began to fill with water (174 million years ago) is part of the 6th manvantaras, which extends from roughly 120 million years ago to about 430 million years ago. The Puranas contain histories of persons who lived at that time. And there is some archaeological evidence that is consistent with that. In the year 1862, a scientific journal called The Geologist published an interesting report: “In Macoupin County, Illinois, the bones of a man were recently found on a coal-bed capped with two feet of slate rock, ninety feet below the surface of the earth.” According to a geologist of the Illinois State Geological Survey, the age of the formation in which the human bones were found is between 286 million and 320 million years old. In 1938, geologist W. G. Burroughs reported finding human footprints in rocks of roughly the same age in Rockcastle County, Kentucky (“Human-like footprints,” The Berea Alumnus, November 1938, pp. 46-47). Burroughs (p. 46) stated, “The footprints are sunk into the horizontal surface of an outcrop of hard, massive grey sandstone on the O. Finnell farm. There are three pairs of tracks showing left and right footprints… Each footprint has five toes and a distinct arch. The toes are spread apart like those of a human being who has never worn shoes.” Giving more details, Burroughs said, “The length of the foot from the heel to the end of the longest toe is about nine and one-half inches though this length varies slightly in different tracks. The width across the ball of the foot is 4.1 inches.” He noted, “The foot curves back like a human foot to a human appearing heel.” So even before the time of the Cuban structures, humans were present. So it is possible they could have built the structures that were later covered by 2,000 feet of seawater.


Michael A. Cremo is the author, with Richard Thompson, of the underground classic Forbidden Archeology: The Hidden History of Human Race. He has also written Human Devolution: A Vedic Alternative to Darwin’s Theory. (Visit


Michael Cremo

Sept/Oct 2017 – #125