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The Fires of Tap O’ Noth

What Did the Ancient Picts Know and When Did They Know It?

Archaeologists from the University of Aberdeen admit being amazed by their latest discoveries at Tap O’ Noth, an ancient Scottish settlement. The virtual iron age metropolis in Aberdeenshire may, at some point, have been populated by as many as 4,000, in about 800 huts, high atop a hill near the modern town of Rhynie. Generally believed to be Pictish, the community has been carbon dated to as early as the third century AD, and, say the scientists, was one the the largest post-Roman settlements ever found either in Europe or the British Isles. (https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-north-east-orkney-shetland-52660032)

Some historians believe King Arthur’s bride Guinevere was a Pictish princess, but the lost Pict people of Scotland have long been considered, though highly artistic, still, quite primitive. That view has been challenged by some recent research, like that at a Pictish monastery at Portmahomack on the Tarbat peninsula in Scotland, demonstrating that as early as AD 500, Pictish artisans and architects were using the ‘golden section’ or ‘golden ratio’ in the building of Christian chapels. Expressed numerically at 1.618, the ratio appears often in nature and has been a frequent tool of sophisticated designers in both ancient and modern cultures.

Yet, with all the amazement over the sheer size and advancement of the site at Tap O’Noth, there is still no believable explanation for one of its greatest mysteries, and, indeed, of many other such hillforts. How was it that so many of their ancient walls, when destroyed, were turned to glass, or ‘vitrified?’ But, they were. Some enclosures in this category are as old as 2500 hundred years, yet the remains of their walls were melted by some—as yet unexplained—heat source, far greater than that of any known furnace for centuries to come.

As recently as 2018, at the vitrified fort of Dun Deardail, researchers from Scotland’s Stirling University claimed that they could now explain how the ancient stone walls became molten and melted. But, critics point out, even though the researchers succeeded in experimentally producing some very hot spots, the spots were relatively tiny, and far short of what would have been needed to generate the massive melting of stone now evident.

The Stirling experiment was the latest to take up the vitrification question, first faced in 1934 by University of Edinburgh archaeologist Gordon Childe. According to researcher Nick Redfern writing for Atlantis Rising Magazine in 2016, Childe and his team “carefully constructed a series of walls that were comprised of fire-clay bricks, timber, and basalt rubble. They then proceeded to place no less than four tons of brushwood, and extra timber, against the walls and set them on fire.” The ultimate result of more than four tons of burning brushwood and extra timber, was, alas, just a few, melted droplets. Obviously, a concentrated, far more powerful, longer-lasting heat source had vitrified the fortresses.

Building on the Childe effort, Dr. Ian Ralston (at Edinburgh University’s Department of Archaeology) undertook, in 1980, an even more ambitious project in northeast Scotland, when he built his own twenty-five-foot-long, partial recreation of a stone fort. In 2004, renowned futurist Arthur C. Clarke described the Ralston experiment on his Mysterious World television series. “Professional dry-stone wallers toiled for days to build the wall of rock laced with timber,” which was set alight. “After several hours and many tons of wood, a load of old furniture has to be commandeered from the local dustman, as the only way to keep the temperature up. Later, another consignment of wood, the sixth of the day, arrives to keep the fires burning. As night falls over Aberdeen, weary helpers begin to realize the true extent of the mystery of the vitrified forts, to wonder not only how the fort builders could achieve the searing temperatures needed to melt the rock, but how they managed to drag vast quantities of wood up to the tops of the hills with only primitive transport. The morning after … twenty-two hours after the first fire was lit … at first sight, the result looks disappointing. There are no ramparts of fused stone. The search is now on for any rocks that have melted” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIoYZLZySzI, Arthur C. Clarke’s Mysterious World).

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Issue #132
The Heat of Battle

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The Heat of Battle

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DESIGNING GÖBEKLI TEPE

Does New Research Prove Planning?

Since its discovery in 1994, by German Archaeologist Klaus Schmidt, the vast and mysterious ruins in southeastern Turkey, known as Göbekli Tepe, have posed enormous, and virtually unanswerable questions for mainstream archaeology. Dating to long before its final burial, 11 to 12 thousand years ago, the obviously sophisticated structures of Göbekli Tepe are older—by more than four thousand years—than the commonly accepted age of Stonehenge or the Great Pyramid. In other words, it completely overthrows conventional notions of prehistory—that humans of that period were primitive hunter-gatherers, and nothing more. And, the problems for the standard academic paradigm are not going away. Incredibly, a new study shows that the site was designed in advance, something considered impossible for any hunter-gatherer society.

Israeli archaeologists Gil Haklay and Avi Gopher of Tel Aviv University have established that aligning the centers of the three oldest enclosures (‘B’, ‘C’, & ‘D’) at Göbekli Tepe is a large equilateral triangle (over 65 feet on a side). The clear implication is that all three circular structures were planned–and maybe built–at the same time, thousands of years before the conventionally accepted invention of writing or the wheel. Such an enormous structure, would have required hundreds—if not thousands—of well organized workers. Entitled “Geometry and Architectural Planning at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey,” the new study was published in January, 2020, in The Cambridge Archaeological Journal. Göbekli Tepe’s builders, the authors suggest, must have been guided by some understanding of geometric principles and were capable of applying them to their construction plans. (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/cambridge-archaeological-journal/article/geometry-and-architectural-planning-at-gobekli-tepe-turkey/2CBAF416E33AFE6496B73710A2F42FF9)

In an April edition of the Israeli newspaper Haaretz, reporter Ariel David commented that “Based on the assumption that such a massive construction project would have been beyond the capacities of the small, non-sedentary groups that usually comprise hunter-gatherer societies, most scholars have assumed that all the circles at Göbekli Tepe had to have been built gradually over a long period of time.” The new evidence of advanced uniform planning clearly contradicts that assumption, but it is not the first such evidence to come to light.

 In his 2014 book, Göbekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods, British writer Andrew Collins offers one of the most thorough studies available on the topic (“Göbekli Tepe: The Cosmic Connection,” Atlantis Rising Magazine, see page 6). In addition to advanced planning, Collins claims the site also shows strong evidence of  alignment with the stars. A large ‘sighting stone’ with a carved hole, he believes, directs attention from Enclosure D to the northern sky, pointing specifically to Deneb, the alpha star of the Cygnus constellation, traditionally depicted as a swan, or some kind of bird. Indeed, one of the pillars in enclosure D bears the detailed relief carving of a bird, generally thought to be a vulture, next to some kind of sphere.

In 2015 Collins provided still further evidence of great, and entirely unexplained, sophistication at Göbekli Tepe. A tiny artifact—just six centimeters long, two-and-a-half wide, and three-quarters-of-a-millimeter thick—found during routine excavations at Göbekli Tepe, and on display in the Sanliurfa museum, was recognized for its significance by Matthew Smith, a British Telecommunications consultant. Smith pointed out to Collins, that it was a decorated with a representation of twin pillars like those at the center of each of the enclosures and, moreover, noticed, that the design employed a sophisticated three-dimensional perspective technique, not to be invented for another twelve thousand years, when artists of the renaissance, learned how to make their drawn lines converge toward a ‘horizon’ or ‘disappearing point’ in the center of an image, creating the illusion of depth for the observer.

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Göbekli Tepe The Cosmic Connection

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Göbekli Tepe The Cosmic Connection

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GÖBEKLI TEPE Articles

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NEFERTITI’S LOST TOMB

Can New Radar Pictures Show Us Where It Is?

Could the long lost tomb of Nefertiti be found soon? Anomalous new radar evidence reported in February by the journal Nature has reignited a firestorm of debate, and revived a startling hypothesis that most Egyptologists had dismissed as dead.

According to reporter Jo Marchant, writing for Nature.com, a new Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey indicates the existence, in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor, of a “previously unknown space beyond Tutankhamun’s burial chamber,” (https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00465-y). A then unpublished report, viewed by Nature, and presented to the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) by former Egyptian minister of antiquities Mamdouh Eldamaty, has identified an unknown corridor-like space a few meters from the celebrated Tut burial chamber.

In 2017, the possibility of an unknown chamber adjacent to King Tut’s tomb caused a great deal of excitement. British Egyptologist Nicholas Reeves had argued that lines and cracks in the chamber’s painted walls were evidence of a hidden doorway just to the north of the main chamber, and, he speculated, that is where the mummy of Nefertiti, who some believe acted as co-regent during the reign of Tutankhamun, the son of her husband Akhenaten, might be found. Later that year, intriguing, though it was, the idea was apparently put to rest, when at least one radar survey claimed to rule it out, though some disagreed. Surprisingly, the new Eldamaty discovery points to another previously unconsidered location, but Nefertiti’s remains Reeves still thinks, will eventually be found in the vicinity. Moreover, her chamber, he has said, may be even richer than that of Tut, which has been, until now, the most opulent ever discovered.

Thirty-three centuries ago, Nefertiti was doubtless the world’s most powerful women, and,  possibly, its most beautiful, yet she also remains one of the most enigmatic who have ever lived. Though she ruled jointly with her husband Akhenaten, and left the world its lasting legacy of monotheism, she disappeared suddenly from history and no one has been able to determine exactly what happened to her, or her body.

Discovered in 1922 by English explorer Howard Carter, the tomb of King Tut, yielded artifacts, which, says Reeves, had been hastily assembled, in a way inconsistent with a properly prepared royal tomb. The reason he says, is that chamber was only an antechamber to the previously existing tomb of his step-mother, and co-regent, Nefertiti who used the name Smenkhkare, and was the real power.

With her husband Akhenaten (also known as Amenhotep IV) Nefertiti had helped establish a new Egyptian capitol city, Amarna, and replaced the traditional religion of many gods, led by Amun, with the worship of Aten, the sun-god. After the death of Akhenaten, his followers were scattered and his city destroyed, but, many believe, the traditions and teachings of Akhenaten and Nefertiti were secretly passed down to loyal devotees, who ultimately became known as ‘Israelites.’ The traditions which led to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, it is asserted, were the real legacy of Egypt’s ‘heretic’ rulers.

Some, including Sigmund Freud, have claimed that Moses, who, as the Bible tells us, was raised as an Egyptian, was a follower of Akhenaten. Emanuel Velikovsky held similar views. Author Ralph Ellis (The King Jesus Trilogy), believes that ancient ‘Hebrew’ history is actually thinly veiled ‘Egyptian’ history. The ‘Garden of Eden,’ for example, says Ellis, should be rendered ‘the Garden of Aten’ (a disguised reference to Amarna), and Adam and Eve, were really symbolic representations of Akhenaten and Nefertiti.

Another researcher, metallurgist Robert Feather (Black Holes in the Dead Sea Scrolls) has pointed to the Dead Sea Scrolls as establishing a strong connection with Amarna. The Copper Scroll, which provides detailed directions to, an as yet unfound, ancient treasure, he says, was made from the purest copper and came from an Egyptian mine which he has identified. The scroll’s instructions, he says, do not apply to the temple of Jerusalem, as is generally believed, but rather, with great precision, to long-lost Amarna. The Egyptian connection, he argues, was well understood, and consciously preserved, esoterically by the Essenes of Qumran.

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Issue #116
Hidden Chambers in Egypt?

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Hidden Chambers in Egypt?